|Scientific Name||Common Name|
|Acacia kempeana||Witchetty Bush|
|Acacia murrayana||Inditta Murrays Wattle|
|Acacia torulosa||Deep-Gold Wattle|
|Acacia victoriae||Acacia Bush Bramble Wattle|
|Acronychia acidula||Lemon Aspen|
|Acronychia acronychioides||White Aspen|
|Acronychia crassipetala||Crater Aspen|
|Acronychia sp||Lemon Aspen|
|Acrostichum aureum||Mangrove Fern|
|Adansonia gregorii||Baobab Tree|
|Agaricus arrensis||Giant Field Mushroom|
|Agaricus campestris||Field Mushroom|
|Aleurites moluccana||Candle Nut|
|Alpinia caerulea||Native Ginger|
|Amorphophallus variabis||Bitter Yam|
|Ampelocissus acetosa||Native Grape|
|Ampelocissus frutescen||Wild Grape|
|Antidesma ghaesembilla||Currant Bush|
|Araucaria bidwillii||Bunya Pine|
|Beilschmiedia bancroftii||Yellow Walnut|
|Bowenia serrulata||Bywater Fern|
|Brachychiton australis||Big Leafed Kurrajong|
|Brachychiton diverstfolium||Bottle Tree|
|Brachychiton populneum||Kurrajong Bottle Tree|
|Brachychiton rupestris||Bottle Tree|
|Buchanania arborescens||Little Gooseberry Tree|
|Buchanania obovata||Green Plum|
|Canthium latifolium||Bush Raisin|
|Capparis arborea||Native Pomegranate|
|Capparis canescens||Wild Orange Orangewood|
|Capparis mitchellii||Wild Orange|
|Capparis nummularia||Wild Orange Wild Passionfruit|
|Carpobrotus sp||Pig Face|
|Castanospermum australe||Blackbean Morton Bay Chestnut|
|Cayratia maritima||Oenpelli Grape|
|Cayratia trifolia||Wild Grapes|
|Cissus hypoglauca||Native Grape|
|Citrus australasica||Finger Lime|
|Citrus australis||Round lime|
|Citrus glauca||Wild lime|
|Clerodendrum floribundum||Lolly Bush|
|Cochlospermum fraseri||Cotton Tree Native Kapok Bush|
|Cochlospermum gillivrael||Cotton Tree|
|Cucumus trigonis||Native melon or cucumber|
|Cyperus bulbosus||Yam Wild Onion|
|Cyperus rotundus||Nut Grass Wild Onion|
|Davidsonia pruriens||Davidson Plum Ooray|
|Dioscorea bulbifera||Round Yam Cheeky Yam|
|Dioscorea transversa||Long Yam|
|Elaeocarpus bancroftii||Johnstone River Almond|
|Elaeocarpus grandis||Blue Quandong|
|Eleocharis dulcis||Spike Rush Water Chestnut|
|Enchylaena tomentosa||Ruby Saltbush|
|Eriosema chinense||Bush Carrot|
|Eupomatia laurina||Bush Guava Native Guava|
|Ficus coronata||Sandpaper Fig|
|Ficus leptoclada||Apricot Fig|
|Ficus nodosa||Wild Fig F|
|icus opposita||Sandpaper Fig|
|Ficus platypoda||Native Rock Fig|
|Ficus racemosa||Cluster Fig Ficus|
|Flacourtia territorialis||Red Cherries|
|Grewia latifolia||Giant Emu Berries|
|Grewia retusifolia||Emu Berries|
|Hibiscus heterophyllus||Native Rosella|
|Hibiscus tiliaceus||Cotton tree|
|Hornstedtia scottiana||Native cardamon|
|Ipomoea costata||Wild Potato Bush Potato Large Yam|
|Ipomoea graminea||Bush Potato|
|Leichardtia australis||Wild Cucumber Bush Banana|
|Manilkara kauki||Wongi Plum|
|Melastoma polyanthum||Native Lasiandra|
|Microstemma tuberosum||Bush Potato|
|Morinda citrifolia||Great Morinda Rotten Cheese Fruit|
|Musa acuminata||Bush Banana|
|Parinari nonda||Nonda Plum|
|Passiflora foetida||Bush Passionfruit Stinking Passionfruit|
|Persoonia falcata||Geebung Nanchee|
|Physalis minata||Native Gooseberry P|
|hysalis minima||Native Gooseberry|
|Piper betel||Native Pepper|
|Planchonia careya||Cocky Apple Native Pear|
|Pleiogynium cerasiferum||Burdekin Plum|
|Podocarpus elatus||Plum Pine Brown Pine|
|Rhodomyrtus macrocarpa||Finger Fruit|
|Rubus hillii||Native Raspberry|
|Rubus rosifolius||Wild Raspberry|
|Santalum acuminatum||Sweet Quandong|
|Solanum centrale||Bush Tomato|
|Solanum dioicum||Wild Tomato|
|Solanum diversiflorum||Wild Tomato Bush Tomato|
|Sterculla quadrifida||Peanut tree|
|Stylobasium spathulatum||Nut bush|
|Syzygium eucalyptoides||Native apple|
|Syzygium johnsonii||Johnson satinash|
|Syzygium suborbicularis||Lady apple|
|Terminalia carpentariae||Gulf Plum Salty Plum|
|Terminalia catappa||Sea Almond|
|Terminalia cunninghamii||Kalumburu Almond|
|Terminalia ferdinandiana||Billy Goat Plum Kakadu Plum|
|Typha augustifolia||Bulrush typha|
|Vigna Lanceolata||Maloga Bean|
Common Name: Desert or Wild Lime.
(glauca; bluish, referring to the foliage colour)
Semi arid and arid areas of New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia
Not considered to be at risk in the wild.
The Desert Lime is a medium shrub or small tree generally 3-7 metres in height. It is confined to inland areas, usually on heavy, clay soils. The foliage is greenish-grey, with oblong leaves up to 50mm long by 5 mm wide. The stems are spiny with irregularly spaced thorns. Flowers are 10 mm across, white or greenish in colour and appear in late winter and spring. The flowers are followed by greenish/yellow fruits which are globular in shape and about 15 mm diameter.
The fruits are edible and have a strong citrus flavour which is widely sought by "bush tucker" enthusiasts.
Because of its habitat, Citrus glauca is of interest as a grafting rootstock to possibly extend the range of commercial citrus crops. There is also potential for breeding to develop new citrus varieties.
C. glauca is not widely cultivated as it is generally unsuited to the wetter climates of the major population centres. It can be cultivated successfully in inland areas. The plant has a suckering habit which may need to be controlled in cultivation. Propagation is possible from seed but cuttings may be slow to strike. Grafting or budding onto other citrus stocks has apparently been successful.
Rural Industries Research & Development Corporation
(Cut flowers and foliage)
by Margaret Sedgley and Francha Horlock*
|A. acinacea||A. binervia|
|A. boormanii||A. brachybotrya|
|A. browniana var. endlicheri||A. buxifolia|
|A. calamifolia||A. cultriformis|
|A. decora||A. drummondii|
|A. drummondii elegans||A. flexifolia|
|A. glaucoptera||A. imbricata|
|A. implexa||A. iteaphylla (foliage only)|
|A. leprosa||A. longifolia|
|A. mearnsii||A. meisneri|
|A. montana||A. myrtifolia|
|A. notabilis||A. podalyriifolia|
|A. pravissima||A. prominens|
|A. pycnantha||A. retinodes|
|A. stricta||A. suaveolens|
|A. vestita||A. williamsonii|
There are no superior cultivars of acacia available in Australia.
In the French industry, the A. dealbata cultivar Mirandole is the most popular, comprising 53% of the market, with the A. dealbata cultivar Gaulois at 26% and A. retinodes cultivars at 10%. The French cultivars are grafted onto seedling rootstocks.
Most acacia tubestock currently available in Australia is seed propagated,
although methodology exists for vegetative propagation via rooted cuttings.
Overseas, acacias for cut stem production are superior cultivars grafted onto
seedling rootstocks. Acacias will tolerate most soil types, but very heavy soils
should be mixed with sand and organic matter to avoid waterlogging. Before
planting the ground is cleared, and the soil ripped to a depth of 40-60 cm.
Young trees are planted in rows or along the contour lines of sloping sites, at
a spacing of 1-6 m between and within rows. Planting is done in late autumn, or
early spring in frost-prone areas, and cover crops are often grown.
Some work has been done to investigate glasshouse production of flowering Acacia stems, to avoid problems such as frost and bushfire. Sand, peat and gravel is used as the soil medium, with liquid fertiliser. A further advantage is that the plants flower three weeks earlier than outside, but there are also disadvantages, mainly in the increased incidence of disease problems.
In France, fertiliser is incorporated into the ripped soil before planting, at a rate of 500-1000 kg superphosphate, 150-200 kg potassium sulphate, 150-200 kg ammonium sulphate, 1000-2000 kg vegetable waste and 40-60 t manure/ha. After planting, ammonium sulphate is applied throughout the year after each pruning, and the fertiliser regime for mature plants is 0.6 kg superphosphate, 0.2 kg potassium sulphate and 0.4 kg ammonium sulphate per tree. Iron chelate is used to combat chlorosis in alkaline soils.
Regular pruning has long been used in southern France and Italy, both to control plant size and to induce flowering for specific cut-flower markets. Pruning of old wood is particularly important, as the flowering stems produced on old wood are inferior to those on new wood. Advancement or delay of flowering is achieved in the French mimosa industry by pruning, which serves to promote maximum flowering through the production of many lateral shoots. Pruning of the winter-flowering species A. dealbata involves thinning out and heading back at or shortly after harvest. For the summer flowering A. retinodes, more frequent and severe pruning is required to delay flowering until winter. This involves repeated heading back of two-year-old shoots to four or five buds to stimulate many fine shoots which will bear the flower buds. The first commercial cut-flower harvest is taken from three-year-old trees, with peak production at six years. Yield per tree varies from 10 kg for A. retinodes to 20 kg for A. dealbata.
Wood borers are the most serious pests of acacias in Australia. Larvae of
beetles belonging either to the family Cerambycidae, the longicorn group, or to
the family Curculionidae, the weevils, are most commonly responsible. Their
presence is detected by frass at the base of the affected branch, or in serious
cases by death. Borers are probably largely responsible for the short life of
acacias in cultivation, and should be detected and treated early with injection
of alcohol or dimethoate into the hole.
Another potentially serious pest of acacias in Australia is the leaf-eating beetle Paropsis, which can defoliate plants within a short space of time. The beetles are controlled with maldison and lead arsenate, but the problem is to know when an attack will occur. Larvae of leaf miners can also cause problems, including those belonging to the family Gracillariidae, such as Acrocerops plebeia which is a particular pest of A. podalyriifolia in Sydney. These make unsightly tunnels in the leaves which detract from the appearance of the stem and may cause defoliation. Leaf miners can be controlled using systemics such as dimethoate. Other pests of acacias in Australia include scale insects belonging to the superfamily Coccoidea, sap-sucking leaf hoppers, gall-making insects, and the Acacia bug, Eucerocoris tumidiceps, which causes unsightly black spots on the leaves where it has sucked sap.
In southern France, the most common pests of acacia plantings are psyllids. These sap-sucking insects lay their eggs on the foliage, and the larvae attack the young shoots and leaves. The pest is controlled with parathion and endosulphan. The scale insects, Aspidiotus hederae and Icerya purchasi, are controlled using white oil or methidathion in cool weather, but in warm conditions the predatory beetle Novius cardinalis is effective in controlling Icerya. Caterpillars and nematodes have also been reported as minor pests of acacias in France.
In Australia the main disease problem is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes root or collar rot and leads to death of the plant. In southern France the main problem is Septoria rust, which causes a red colouration followed by leaf shed. Copper is used to control the problem. Rotary or manual hoeing is the most common method used to control weeds in the French industry.
In France and Italy harvesting of cut flower stems, which are put into clean
water or preservative solution, is done by hand using saws or secateurs. Some
stems are marketed at the green bud stage, but in order to maximise returns most
are harvested at the yellow bud stage. Stems are harvested just before flower
opening, and the cut stems are forced into full bloom before marketing. They are
placed in forcing rooms set at a temperature of 22-30°C and 85-95% relative
humidity for 48-72 hours with no light. After forcing, the stems with open
flowers are transferred to a drying room at a temperature below 12°C, after
which they are graded according to stem length and packed. Bunches of varying
sizes are wrapped, and are packed into cartons with details of the producer, the
cultivar and the number and weight of bunches.
Flower opening during forcing and post-forcing vase life are improved by a post-harvest storage solution containing up to 10% sucrose, 200 ppm citric acid, 200 ppm hydroxyquinoline sulphate (HQS), 50 ppm silver nitrate and 50 ppm aluminium sulphate. Using this solution a vase life of 7 days can be achieved. Alternatively, commercial bud opening preservatives can be used.
In Australia recent research has shown that stems with yellow buds can be forced in a pulse of 1% sucrose, 0.01% detergent such as Agral, and 200 ppm aluminium sulphate for 16 hours at 10-20°C. Open flowers are treated in the same way, but can be pulsed at temperatures of 4-20°C. For transport, flowers should be pre-cooled and disinfested, then packed tightly in a carton. Packing stems in perforated sleeves and inserting stems in floral foam, soaked in flower preservative or chlorine solution, may improve quality. A vase solution of 1% sucrose and 50 ppm chlorine or a commercial preservative increases vase life.
Economic analyses for new crops should be treated with caution, especially as
so many acacia growers produce other crops as well. The following production
figures relate to foliage for the domestic market.
For a farm in South Australia, producing more than 500,000 stems per year and receiving a price per stem of $0.25, the gross farm income in 1995 was $137, 213 for average yields and $151,073 for above average yields.
This represents a farm profit of $31, 261 for average yields and $45,121 for above average yields, with a return on capital of 6.6% and 9.5%, respectively. Annual per hectare expenses are estimated at $300 for plants, $150 weedicides, $750 pesticides, $100 power, $100 water, $160 fertiliser, $3000 labour, $1650 machinery hire, $250 fuel, $7500 harvesting costs and $3000 pruning. First grade blooms will return $0.25 per stem, second grade $0.10 and third grade $0.05. Overall annual expenses are of the order of $16,960 per ha, against income of $19,800, with a gross margin of $2840 per ha.
Potential returns from cut flower export to Japan are more lucrative. It is estimated that at a planting distance of 2 m ??3 m, production of 75,000 stems at year 4 would return
$45,000/ha. More intensive production at 1 m ? 1 m spacing is estimated to return 140,000 stems with an income of $86,400 per hectare at year 4. This is based on a price per stem of between ¥60 and ¥120 in the Japan Auction system or ¥100 to ¥120 for fixed pricing. The grower receives about half of this price after export costs are paid.
Department of Horticulture, Viticulture and Oenology
Waite Agricultural Research Institute
The University of Adelaide
Glen Osmond, SA 5064
Phone: (08) 8303 7242 or
(08) 8303 7248
Fax: (08) 8303 7116
Institute for Horticultural Development
Private Bag 15
South Eastern Mail Centre,
Phone: (03) 9210 9222
Fax: (03) 9800 3521
Institute for Horticultural Development
Private Bag 15
South Eastern Mail Centre,
Phone: (03) 9210 9222
Fax: (03) 9800 3521
AF&PGA (Australian Flora and Protea Growers Association)
Frogmore, NSW 2586
Phone: (02) 6385 6222
FECA (Flower Export Council of Australia)
P.O. Box 137
Nedlands, WA 6009
Phone: (08) 9327 5563
Fax: (08) 9327 5683
Jones, R. and Horlock, F. 1994-95. Acacia Newsletters 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Karingal Consultants 1994. The Australian wildflower and native plants cutflowers and foliage industry: a review. RIRDC.
Primary Industries South Australia/South Australian Research and Development Institute 1995. South Australian Ornamentals Industry Development Plan 1995-2000.
Sedgley, M. 1996. Acacia. In: Horticulture of Australian Native Plants and Their Uses. Eds. K. Johnson and M. Burchett, New South Wales University Press. Chapter 8, 92-101.
Timmermans, U. 1989. Mimosa production recovers quicker than expected. Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 18, 39-41.
Margaret Sedgley is Professor of Horticultural Science at the University of
Adelaide, Department of Horticulture, Viticulture and Oenology. She has worked
on improvement of native plants for ornamental horticulture for over 15 years.
For address see Key contacts.
Francha Horlock is with the Institute for Horticultural Development of Agriculture Victoria, and works on production and postharvest handling of Acacia for cut flower and foliage.