Issue 3_2


 


 

 

 

 


 


 


 

  

  

  

  

  

 

 

 

 

Home ||  Back Issue Contents  || Search ||
Issue 3 , Aug- Sept 1997
 

Lenah Wallaby, the Veal of Kangaroo

Tasmania is well known as one of the premier food producing areas of Australia and the quality ofits indigenous products is no exception. One of its best kept secrets is Lcnah Wallaby, the product of Bennetts wallaby harvested and processed by Lenah Game Meats of Launceston. Most chefs who are experienced with this delightful product refer to it as the "veal of kangaroo" because of it's lighter colour, sweeter flavour and finer texture.

Lenah Wallaby is harvested off some of the lushest pastures in the country and the average wallaby yields only 3 kg of meat. Lenah Game Meats further enhances the natural quality of its wallaby with a rigorous QA program. Like many animals wallabies can be aged by examining their teeth development. Lenah sets a cut-off age for its prime cuts so that only animals less than three years old are used for restaurant grade products whilst the older animals are used for small goods. Lenah is the only company in the kangaroo industry that does this. Wallabies of the right quality for restaurants are broken down into a range of fully trimmed ready to use cuts, vacuum packed into 1 kg lots that include porterhouse, striploin and rump. Other more innovative products include wallaby shanks, rib-racks and juniper smoked wallaby. A full range of pre-packed retail products are atso produced. Wallaby has starred on the menus of fine restaurants throughout the country including the Sydney Opera House. Para-mountin Sydney's Potts Point, Fee and Me in Launceston and Two Small Rooms and Tables in Brisbane.

Probably one of its biggest fans is Andrew Fielke of the Red Ochre chain. Wallaby has been on the menu at the Adelaide Red Ochre continually for over 4 years and now features at all four Red Ochres around the nation. So how should this unique product be prepared? Cooking techniques are exactly the same as for kangaroo except wallaby is a little more forgiving due to its finer texture. Cooking the wallaby to medium rare is ideal. Wallaby can be used in many innovative ways.

Wild Tastes

Producers of fine indigenous meats - Lenah Wallaby, the Veal of Kangaroo & Possum: the King of Game Meats. Distributors of indigenous and game products.

Lenah Game Meats

PO Box 294 Mowbray 7248

TASMANIA Ph: 03 63267696 Fax: 03 63262790

Profile: Erika Birmingham erika

Erika Birmingham, tutor, consultant and grower, owns a hush food business in Bungalow, northern New South Wales, a sub tropical region which is rapidly becoming one of the centres of this young industry. Bvnm Bay Native Produce specialises in ihe Finger Lime (Microcitrus spp) and Erika can quite rightly claim to be one of a handful of people energetically pushing the cause of this under-utilised bushfood.

With a professional background as a trained chef, bush regenerator permaculturist and propagator, Erika typifies the cross-over which is occurring in the industry - people with conventional skills who are bringing these to the bush foods industry with a sort of pioneer fervour. Erika is also heavily involved with research - a crucial area which needs more R&D funding, energy from nurseries, growers and processors.

Erika acts as a consultant in, amongst other things, plant breeding and is establishing commercial bushfood orchard. One of a number of 'small growers' she is now into her third year of serious production.

Like others, she sees the link between environmental restoration and the growth of a sustainable and profitable bushfoods industry.

"The product's exciting - we haven't come anywhere near realising the potential of our native citrus. But the process is exciting too - commercialising something like the lime needn't mean vast monoculture orchards with all the problems that can create. There's certainly a growing demand for organically grown foods - and I think we'll see the demand for native foods increase as people come to appreciate them."

As an educator, Erika has been conducting bushfood courses for the past three years. Her course topics include such things as: Introduction to Bushfoods, Commercial Bushfood Growing and Harvesting, Bushfood Plant Propagation and Bushfood Cooking (in conjunction with French chef Colette Tierney).

"The number of people interested in growing bushfoods is increasing dramatically. If the numbers attending courses and workshops is any indication, we have a vibrant industry with a lot of potential."

The Plant Breeder's Rights Office in Canberra lists her as a Consultant Qualified Person for Australian Native Rainforest Citrus (Microcitrus spp.) and she has taken out Interim Protection through the PBR office on a variety of the Lypher Red pulp Finger Lime.

Erika has planted one of the first commercial orchards of grafted native citrus and it is here that she continues to conduct research and development.

Through her consultancy service she aids others in conserving the biodiversity of Australian Bushfoods (including rare and endangered species) by planting a broad genetic base. In doing so, she aims to provide a genetic resource for further improvement through breeding programs and to aid regeneration in the wild.

Byron Bay Native Produce

PO Box 232 Bangalow

NSW 2479.

Ph/Fax: (02) 6687 1087

A Bushfood Dinner at 14 Ennerdale St, Brisbane

John Wrench

bfoodsMENU

Welcoming Drink:

mulled red wine rainforest spices: Syzygium luehmannii, Backhousia myrtifolia, Microcitrus australis; Tasmannia lanceolata

Pre:

Bunya dip or Bush Hoummus...plus Muntari to munch

Auraucaria bidwilii, Macadamia integrifolia, Kunzea pomitera, Brachychiton populneum, Microcitrus australis

Then:

Freshwater Mussel Soup: Vecesumio sp., Solanum centrale, Araucaria bidwilii, Brachychiton populneum, Tasmannia lanceotata (fruit), Microcitrus australis, Tetragonia tetragonoides, Ocimum tenuiflorum

Rainforest Sorbet: Podocarpus elatus, Microcitrus australis, Syzygium sp. (luehmanni, fibrosum, austrate), Pleiogynium timorense

And:

Casserole of Roo + Warrigal Greens: Macrocarpus sp. (rumps + tails}, Kunzea pomifera, Araucaria bidwillii, Eleocarpus grandis, Syzygium sp., Agaricus campestris, Hibiscus tileacous (jam), Tetragonia tetragonoides

Finale:

Quandong Windsor Santalum acuminatum, Aruacaria bidwillii, Acacia sp., Brachychiton populneum

Wines

Red and White, s; opus sit 1

Teas

flavoured with Backhousia sp. (myrtifolia, citriodora and anisata] Wattleseed "Coffee" Kurrajong "Coffee"

Rainforest Fruit Drink: Eleocarpus grandis, Pleiogynium timorense, Podocarpus elatus, Syzygium sp. (leuhmannii, fibrosum, australe] Microcitrus australis Cooloon Drink: (whole fruit} Cooloon Drink (stripped fruit) Cooloon = Eleocarpus grandis

THE MEAL

Without doubi, the principal role of this magazine is to establish a viable web of all the themes, for all the parties concerned throughout this country, in the serious use of indigenous foods: selection and breeding, propagation, cultivation, harvesting, warehousing, distribution, utilisation, research, quality control, education -and the sheer enjoyment of consuming them. So we had this dinner.

Do you watch SBS? If so. you may have seen that marvellous Danish film "Babette's Feast", enjoying the sardonic style and exquisite cooking. Out at 14 Ennerdale Street, just a short walk from the Downfall Creek Bushland Centre and surrounded by rainforest plants in the ground and in the nursery, the food was created not for the camera and the box but to honour (and stun) a visiting American University student and to honour and delight a Greening Australia Field Officer taking up a new job at Fmerald - Jim Johnston. Apart from all other details, the overall intention in designing the menu was to attempt to produce a meal with absolutel minimal use of non-indigenous material, no mean task with a multi-course dinner for eight. Wines, of course, had to be adequate, and therefore orthodox, but the welcoming mulled, red wine was laced with indigenous flavours - S. luehmanni (riberry) for cloves, Backhousia myrtifolia leaves for cinnamon and powder leaves of Tasmannia lanceolaia for pungency, and a few Microcitrus for a touch of lime.

To accompany the mulled wine, a Bunya dip was provided - a bush Hoummus served in large freshwater mussel shells and using non-edible stems of scrambling lily. Why non-edible? Scrambling lily can provide, under certain conditions , the most delectable raw salad green in the country, but is not yet available commercially. I have had a horticultural trial on a trellis for four years, without solving some of the problems. In the event, insufficient shoots could be harvested, and as a token, old firm sterns were used like single chopsticks. In addition, a bowl of recently thawed muntari berries was provided for munching.

As for the mussel shells - they lead us to the next course - a dark, rich, aromatic soup, based on mussel meat. I thawed the frozen mussels, large ones about 16cm in length, and then baked them at 160" for 30 mins. The cooked meat was removed from the now-opened shells and minced, along with some raw, dehulled bunyas. In the soup pot went the mince plus some kurrajong flour and the flavouring agents - salt, pickled berries of mountain pepper, native thyme, a few round limes, plus akudgera. About kurrajong - in my garden I have four species of Brachychiton: populneum, acerifolium, rupestre and bidwillii, of which I prefer the last for seeds, but hadn't enough for the job. They were free of golden hairs of course, but needed roasting, coarse grinding in the coffee-gadget, then sifting the finer flour from the coarser particles of seed coat. During these processes, you will soon learn how high in oil the seeds are (25%) and why the flour is not freely available. When roasting kurrajong, stay below 150" for use as flour, but 20o+30o higher for the darker "coffee" product.

Storage - all roasted and milled seeds are susceptible to oxidation and rancidity, so store the surplus in the freezer. The guests were polite but this wasn't the best dish of the evening. What went wrong?

Excessively dark - minced mussel interacting, slight bitterness and very fine gritiness (Tasmannia lanceolala seeds, traces of kurrajong seed coat and the mussel). No precise explanation of the problems but good cause for reflection. Anyway, it was certainly aromatic and darkly rich. After the soup came a highly successful sorbet, made from seven rainforest fruits and a little honey. Podocarpus elatus provided mueopolysacccarides2 to control the size of the crystals as well as brilliant colour and all the others provided colour, flavour and acid. A little dry sherry helped depress the freezing point a shade but any spirit would have done. The fruits as cooked: Podocarpus elatus cut in quarters, Syzygium sp. without seeds (luehmanni, australis, fibrosum) Elaecarpus grandis (removed after cooking), Pleiogynium timorense (both cooked whole and removed before blending). The remaining cooked fruits were blended in a food processor. Microcitrus australis being added raw along with some yellow box honey.

Don't ask about the proportions - use your common sense to allow enough Podocarpus for gel and colour, riberry for clove, colour and acid, the other Syzygium sp. for acid and colour, and not too many limes. Burdekin plum is not essential but good fully ripe fruit is helpful. As with all sorbets, freeze and stir at regular intervals.

The texture is wonderful, and slightly chewy (Podocarpus vascular bundles plus lime skins).

Now for the piece-de-resistance - Casserole of Roo with Warrigal Greens.

To feed eight people, I filled a 29cm diameter cast iron casserole dish with a great mixture of bush ingredients as described below. Two packs of roo rump were diced (large) and browned in oil with generous amounts of akudgera powder. Oil - best quality-olive, as I cannot, afford to use Macadamia for everything. You could shake diced meat plus akudgera in a plastic bag before browning. One pack of pieces of tail, on the other hand, were browned and seasoned with powdered leaves of Tasmannia lanceolata. In each case, the browning was followed by a dose of red wine and the released meat juices from the plastic bags and simmered briefly.

In the oiled casserole dish, the bottom was covered with pieces of native ginger leaf (Alpinia caerulea). Around the perimeter, the pieces rump were stacked, alternating with two rainforest fruits - Elaeocarpis grandis and Pleiogynium timorense. Warning: never, never in my hearing refer to the Elaeocarpus as "Blue Quandong". It is not one of the Quandongs, which are members of the (largely) root parasitic family Santalaceae. Just because Santalum acuminatum and the grandis have a 20mm rugose seed is no excuse. Try a Tweed district dialect word, "Cooloon" or "Elaeocarpus'.

The objective of the arrangement of the meat is to create a hollow space in the centre for the tail. Put the two rain forest fruits anywhere you like, but stack the space progressively - rump, tail, rump tail, etc. After that, add several fistfuls of smaller rainforest fruits, e.g., the three Syzygium sp. plus chopped Podocarpus. If there is room, you could add some field mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) before finishing with a layer of cooked bunya halves. Then pour on the juices from the browning and a touch more wine if you are worried about moisture. By the way, a little salt may be added progressively if you are likely to miss it. Unless you are prepared to wait for hours, have the pot plus lid plus the part-cooked ingredients as hot as you can and the oven at 150o. Leave the lid off and the fan on for 15 min or so then reduce it to about 120o, put on the lid and cook for about an hour or until you feel that it is ready. Serve the casserole at the table, spooning portions of the separate sections.

Add a teaspoon or two of bush jams, e g., Talwa'pin (Hibiscus tiliaceus) or other Hibiscus species or Durobhy (Syzygium moorei) and some Warrigal greens.

15 mins before serving, prepare the Warrigal greens by boiling in water for seven to eight minutes and draining to remove soluble oxidates, which are a health hazard if regularly ingested. In case diners express a need for more carbohydrate, it is necessary to have on hand a quantity of boiled bunya kernels, dressed, if so desired, with oil and flavours such as akudgera, Backhousia anisata, etc.

Pause before pud.

Wine, fruit drinks, maybe tea. A brief word about Rainforest Fruit drinks.

There is no rigid formula for this type of product - but several ingredients are important: you must have bright red colour for visual delight. The best sources of colour are Burdekin plum, brown pine and the various Syzygiums. Now, fruit drinks need to be acidulous, which poses no problem at all, given the awesome properties of Burdekin plum, Davidson's plum, the Achronychias. S. fibrosum and the gentle sharpness of the microcitrus species. For flavour, Riberry is outstanding, given its pronounced clove properties. The native limes, of course, are very distinctive either alone or as a component. I usually boil the fruits with sugar and water (having sliced the larger stems and the brown pine), with sugar and water, either to drinking strength or as a more concentrated syrup for subsequent dilution. Refer several thousand satisfied customers who visited the Botany Department at the recent University of Queensland Expo. Quote - my dentist refuses to keep capping my damaged incisors, etc. Now try this pair of exquisite drinks using the fruits in two different ways: boil up half a billy of ripe fruits with half a cup of sugar and water to three-quarters full (about 8 litre). After five minutes the place smells of cooking Granny Smith apples and clove.

Cook for ten minutes or so then cool and chill, leaving in the fruits. The final appearance is pale greenish and translucent; the flavour is subtle, intriguing and mildly acidulous. On the other hand if half the fruits have been stripped off the seed before cooking (use your fingers), the colour becomes reddish-brown, the taste more astringent and the flavour that of guava. Patents applied for. My TAFE Bush Tucker Course notes contain a section on Beverages, referring to decoctions (boiled with water) and infusions (having boiling water poured on) among others. Teas (infusions) may include the exotic Asian tea Camellia sinensis, but rely on indigenous ingredients for the dominant flavours and aromas. I use the Backhousias almost exclusively (B. citriodora, B. myrtifolia and B. anisata) as they are widely available, easy to grow and useful for a range of other foods. Although they were not available for the dinner, I sometimes use Cympbopogon refracta (Barbwire grass) and Jasminum didymum flowers (a native Jasmine) in workshops.

Back to desserts. Overnight, I soaked in water some dried halves of Quandong fruits, Santalum acuminatum, which doubled their bulk. Some cooks use exotic juices to reconstitute the dried fruit, even wine or cider, but this was an attempt at authenticity, so the most I allowed was a little white sugar in cooking the quandong to softness, thickening with minced bunya.

The sponge top for the Windsor did include some self-raising wheat flour and sugar, but contained kurrajong f1our, minced bunyas, the remains of a brew of wattleseed, macadamia oil (instead of butter/ margarine) and eggs. Baked in a rectangular, ceramic dish, this proved to be a delicious dessert with all the sharp flavours of the fruit complemented by the rich, nutty cake top, showing the flecks of wattle seed. For the undisciplined, we did offer a little plain cream. Happy lapse!

icecreamTime for coffee. The substitutes for coffee are legion (especially during wartime austerity). It usually involves roasting some dry seed or root at 180o and grinding the brittle product to a suitably coarse powder. The beverage is made by decoction, that is by (briefly) boiling the powder with water and straining off the unpalatable solids. The watlleseed beverage involves the same principles, but with some differences in content. To start with, only about six species of acacia are used (A. victoriae, A. coriacea, A. dictophleba, etc.) having large seeds and good flavour. Now, beverages of tea, coffee and cocoa have the disadvantage (or bonus for some) of containing xanthine alkaloids such as caffeine, theophylline and theobromine. Wattleseed does NOT, and, in fact, has a bonus of useable nutrient carbohydrates, proteins, fat, minerals and B group vitamins. So they jolly well should, at the price, so never, never waste the solids, but use them in bread, cakes, biscuits, ice cream, sauces, etc. The story with kurrajong is slightly different. Be careful not to over-roast it as it contains about 25% oil. The same factor obliges you to powder it but briefly in the coffee grinder to avoid a greasy mess, and to finger it off the surfaces. Sift through a fine sieve to separate the coarsely shattered seed coats from the finer flour. In fact, if intended for use as flour (as above) it must be roasted even more lightly. Now the bonus - apart from the interesting, nutty taste - the effect of boiling the starch and oil is to produce a creamy emulsion. Therefore no cream is needed. Both brews, by the way, with or without cream, benefit from the addition of a little honey. Quite different from the wattleseed brew - and lighter in colour.

You may be considering why certain ingredients were not used - it was all a matter of availability, cost and time and fuss. Next one, perhaps...

So, replete and amazed, I suppose you want to try your hand; and I suppose you want to know how to lay the aforesaid hands on the wherewithal. Try Noel Joliffe at Joliffe's Outback. Unit 3, 148 Tennyson Memorial Drive (cnr. Curzon Street), Yeerongpilly 4105. If you ring for an appointment, you will be extended the courtesy of an inspection of the showroom and making purchases (good prices). Telephone (07 ) 3217 1999. Fax (07) 3217 1555. Who knows? He may even refer you to your modest writer for the odd (very odd) item, or some plants at:

14 Ennerdale Street, Chermside West, 4032. Phone (07) 3256 3310 Happy days.

John Wrench

Agdex 304

DPI QUEENSLAND GOVERNMENT

Bush food plants of western Queensland

Desert Lime (Eremocitrus glauca)

David Phelps, Pasture Agronomist, Longreach

Desert lime bushes near Tambo, showing younger clumped trees

Desert lime fruit is ready to pick when it is still green in colour and around thumbnail sized

glaucaDescription

Desert limes (or lime bush) is a true citrus, with blue-grey leaves and prickles along the branches. It is usually found growing on clay or heavy clay soils, often as clumps of short bushes (2 - 3m in height). They are occasionally found as single large trees to 5-6m in height. Older trees have a weeping appearance and have few, or no, prickles. Limes are common in the southern and western Darling Downs, especially in Brigalow, or cleared Brigalow, country. Limes also grow further west, eg in the Longreach, Blackall and Tambo districts where they are often found along creek lines and on slightly scalded country. The fruit can be picked when still green, and has a pleasantly refreshing and tangy taste.

Use

Desert lime fruit is extremely popular and becoming very well known within the bush food industry, with 3-4 tonnes currently being used per annum. The fruit is used in a variety of sauces and jams, such as Red Ochre Wild Lime Chilli Marmalade. Fruit is also used within restaurants. The plant has even been investigated overseas as a potential source of drought hardy rootstock for citrus trees.

Value

Clean fruit is currently being bought for $6.50/kg at the farm gate.

Further information

Anderson, E.R. (1993). "Plants of Central Queensland, their identification and use". Department of Primary Industries, Queensland.

Cribb, A.B. and Cribb, J.W. (1989). Useful Wild Plants in Australia. Collins, Sydney.

Cribb, A.B. and Cribb, J.W. (1990). Wild Food in Australia. Second Edition. Angus and Robertson, North Ryde.

Cribb, A.B. and Cribb, J.W. (1990). Wild Medicine in Australia. Angus and Robertson, North Ryde.

Cherikoff, V. (1992). Uniquely Australian. Bush Tucker Supply, Boronia Park.

Cherikoff, V. (1993). The Bush Food Handbook. Bush Tucker Supply Australia, Boronia Park.

Dowling, R.M. and McKenzie, R.A. (1993). Poisonous Plants, a field guide. Department of Primary Industries, Queensland.

Golson, J. (1971). Australian Aboriginal food plants. In Aboriginal Man and Environment in Australia. Ed. Mulvaney, D.J. and Golson, J. A.N.U. Press, Canberra.

Isaacs, J. (1989). Bush Food, Aboriginal food and herbal medicine. Weldon Publishing, Sydney.

Jones, G.P. (Ed.) (1985). The Food Potential of Seeds from Australian Native Plants. Deakin University Press, Victoria.

Low, T. (1989). Bush Tucker, Australia's wild food harvest. Angus and Robertson, North Ryde.

Low, T. (1991). Australian Nature Field Guide: wild food plants of Australia. Angus and Robertson, North Ryde.

Ross, J. (1995). A Taste of Australia: authentic Australian cuisine. The Five Mile Press, Noble Park Victoria.

Stewart, D. (Ed). (1988). Burnum Burnum's Aboriginal Australia. Angus and Robertson, North Ryde.

Tindale, N.B. (1974). Aboriginal Tribes of Australia. Their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits and proper names. Chapter 7. Tribes and Food. A.N.U. Press, Canberra.

© The State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries, August 1996.

Produced by: DPI West Region ISSN 0155 - 3054

Order No: FN-W 96020002

Agdex 304

Observations on Bunya Processingbunya

By John R King of "Bush Cuisine"

Araucaria bidwilli

Bon-ye

Bon-yer

Bon-yee Bahnyel (of the Nanango people)

Ki-gera (of the Cardwell people) Old Plants, by F M Bailey 1902, 1913

To introduce myself, I have been propagating rainforest trees on a small scale for 20 years, and have been a more than an adequate home cook since I was young (in the dark ages). I have 92 acres of land in the Maleny area, 15 acres of which is Araucarian vine forest. I wild-harvest my property for seed for Brisbane revegatation groups, also gathering fruit for one of my loves -native fruit and flower liqueurs. My intention is to grow, gather and value-add from my own farm full time. This year was the triennial Bunya harvest and I was able to buy, gather or harvest 300kg of seed to play with, the idea being to look at what problems I would encounter with various ways of processing Bunyas. I got some interesting results:

you need a 50 to 100 year old tree to crop well. The Bunya being a tree the cows won't eat or destroy, there remains a lot of farm and forest trees for harvesting in our area. Because of the necessary maturity ot the trees, wild-harvesting will be needed for a long time to come.

Farm-gate value-adding to a form useable by restaurants would have to be the goal for this part of our industry, therefore the standards and pitfalls must be found AND PASSED ON for others to know. Having been a volunteer for Green groups, I come into this field with a background of sharing knowledge.

chopperTo start with, the big problem is getting the seeds open and into a form for processing. I tried various knives on cooked and raw Bunyas, working up to about 2kg per hour - too labour intensive to be viable. The next step was to mechanise, so out came the bandsaw. I have tried various ways of holding the nuts to run them through the saw and ended up with cheap stainless steel tongs with small pieces of bike tube fitted for grip. Not the perfect answer but cheap and available in the home kitchen.

Using this method I can cut 6 kg raw nuts per hour, more economical but not the full answer. The next step:

I found that by boiling the nuts for 5 minutes they fall out of their half-shell and are ready for immediate use. To process for sale, much more needs to be done.

I looked at 3 basic methods: preserved in brine; pickled in vinegar, honey and garlic; and lastly, baked and ground for flour. I worked with fresh nuts and ones from the coldroom at 2, 4 and 6 months.

From direct observation I believe the Vitamin B content of Bunyas must come from wild yeast, which must be part of the germination process. This presents problems.

I started by boiling in a brine solution of 30g salt to 1 litre water and 1.4kg bunyas. I boiled them for 30 minutes and sealed them in sterilised bottles. Within 48 hours they were fermenting in the jars! I emptied the brine, added fresh brine, boiled for 30 minutes and bottled in fresh bottles. They lasted for 11 days before fermenting. I repeated the process again with better results and opened one bottle after 3 months. The taste was good but they had a very soft texture by this stage. The resealed bottle started fermenting within 2 days but stopped after 4 days. Taste did not suffer but texture and appearance did, starch etc giving the product a cloudy appearance even at 6 months.

Next - pickling. To 1 litre vinegar I added 1 cup honey, 2 cloves garlic and 1 tblsp salt, combined ingredients were boiled for 30 minutes and bottled. After 7 days fermentation started so the process was repeated. Appearance was cloudy but after 3 months is beginning to clear, there's good firm texture, good flavour and the appearance is improving with time, as released starch settles. I used these on a catering job as a savoury replacement for olives. They went over well with my test public, potential there but still labour intensive.

Competing with olive prices does put them in a range that allows financial feasibility.

I tried cooking Bunyas in a sugar syrup and they started to ferment within 12 hours, even after 3 cookings. The 2nd cooking was at a high enough temperature to start caramelising the seeds. After the third fermentation, I emptied out the syrup and cooked the Bunyas in vinegar.

After 3 months the caramel colour is good and they smell fine, but I am not game to try them, for the bottom 1/4 of the bottle is filled with a pure white gelatinous substance which does nothing for the appearance. For the last exercise, I boiled the Bunyas, separated them from their shells and baked them in the oven until they were dried rock-hard. I then ground them in a coffee grinder to a fine flour and used the flour to make a cheese cake base. It was nice but not spectacular. Perhaps I need to explore sun-drying the raw seeds and use their in-built yeast as a rising agent. The flour is probably not unusual enough to warrant production. If an easier way of opening Bunyas is found then flour would be a way of coping with a bumper harvest year. My flour went mouldy in a sealed container after 2 months. A low enough moisture level to overcome this might prove a problem, but would have to be looked at to give good shelf life.

I still have 200kg of Bunyas in the cold room and will be looking at storage life and effect of cold storage on processing results over time.

Thrown into the campfire when fresh, or into a pot and boiled with corned beef and eaten hot are still the best ways to enjoy them. Until the fermenting agents are understood or determined, care NEEDS to be taken that products such as pestos are used within a few hours, or that they go through an extensive cooking process. Preservatives may be needed to increase shelf life, which brings us out of the realm of cottage industry and into the area for food technologists. The addition of artificial chemicals takes us in a direction counter to what I perceive as the direction I would like our industry to take. As these are only personal observations, I would welcome further information, criticisms, corrections or education. The more we share, the stronger our industry position will be in the future.

History and Opportunities in Bushfood Industry Organisation

Bushfoods, bureacracies and bioregionalism

Larry Geno

Agroecology Associates, Consultants,

Northern Rivers Bush Tucker Foods

Introduction

Bushfood enthusiasts are currently at a critical juncture in organising themselves to respond to the need to communicate, to represent unified, common themes and to lobby and liase with Government and other institutions. Like most political processes, the work is often distasteful, yet necessary. Another theme of good versus evil is the concurrent and recurring promotion of both top down government-driven options and bottom up grassroots approaches. Even those bushfood stakeholders who decline to participate in organisation development cannot fail to be affected by them (ie industry levies, R&D planning). As someone involved in establishing bushfood plantations and organisations, it seemed an historical perspective might be useful to those in the industry who might be new or only partially informed on the past developments, criteria for success and future opportunities for bushfood industry organisation.

Like many new crop industries, bushfood collectors, producers, processors and marketers have been addressing the form and possible functions of organised industry bodies. As one of the most difficult new crop arenas, the progress and approach of the bushfood industry in organising itself over the last decade may prove insightful to other new crop enthusiasts.

History

Unusually, for a new crop, bushfoods originated from the wild bush native foods with traditional and historical uses. This widely dispersed, erratic wild food resource was first gathered for personal use, then in higher quantities for commercial distribution. For its first years as an "industry", bushfoods were handled by the chaotic and intermittent collection of wild harvesters supporting a very small number of marketers and promoters. As wild harvesters had little commitment to an "industry" that only supplied occasional work and income, they saw little need to organise and have not done so to the present time. While only a handful of marketers had control of the product, there was no real need for them to organise and a certain disincentive for them to encourage wild harvesters to organise.

Mid-Life Crises

From the historical base mentioned above, the first organisation to emerge for bush foods was ANBIC. The Australian National Bushfood Industry Council (now Pty Ltd), established initially as a Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) committee in 1995, which was and remains composed largely of directors with a marketing orientation. From its earliest attempts to be a national peak body for the bushfoods industry it suffered from a lack of producer representation, strong dominance by Southern Australian and urban participants, and all the problems of implementing participatory processes that occur with centralised, narrowly based initiatives.

In the second crises, as bushfood consumption increased overtime, it quickly became apparent that wild harvested bush foods were, in all but a few cases, quite limited in quantity. This limitation of product began to restrict marketing and consumption.

An obvious conclusion arose that more and more bush food would need to be produced in plantations (everything from monoculture industrial plantations to in-planting/augmentation of native stands). This shift from wild sources to plantation sources produced a bit of a crisis with existing marketers who now would have to compete with plantations for product ownership and marketing. A third mid-life crisis occurred when bush food enthusiasts recognised that most bush foods are by their very nature particular to certain regions and climate zones.

In recognising the biological realities of bushfood production (either wild or plantation sourced) enthusiasts came to appreciate that to assemble adequate information on bushfoods, to expand production through plantations, to develop adapted and sustainable farming systems, and to successfully link up the essential elements (nurseries, farmers, collectors, consultants, etc) for a successful industry; the focus would need to be regional. This meant that the organisation needed to match the crops in scope and scale. It further reflected the rising consciousness of catchment management (TCM, ICM, Landcare.etc), regionalisation of resource management activities, and wholistic ecosystem management based approaches in science, research and regional development.

Growing Older and Wiser

While marketers and government pursued the ANBIC strategy, a number of interesting regional efforts emerged. In Queensland, bushfood enthusiasts established a cooperative for bushfood production and marketing. Southern groups were slower to emerge but are now firmly established on a regional basis. Perhaps the most visible regional organisation to emerge was ARBIA (Australian Rainforest Bushfood Industry Association) serving the subtropical east coast. Their formation was very strong in its support of a bio-regional model for bushfood organisations and recognised that all interested parties would be best empowered by closely linking on a regional basis. While not without the problems common to new small organisations, ARBIA remains the largest single bushfood organisation and publishes a model journal cum newsletter.

These new, small, volunteer regional organisations saw their role and functions fairly clearly and began to slowly address the needs of their regions. Despite this strength, they began to recognise the limitations of operating at the national level in lobbying for legislation, directing research and development funding or conducting generic promotion or training activities that were a common need for all regions. Whatever the inadequacies of ANBIC, it became clear that a national organisation would be necessary for some roles.

Organised, if not Mature

As a result of the foregoing and on my advice of a year ago, the regional bushfood organisations have banded together into the Australian Bushfood Federation and. later, the Committee of Regional Bush-food Organisations (CORBO), under the impetus of ARBIA. This allows ihe bio-regional model to persist under the regional associations with local control and relevance, close regional networking, participatory processes and peer pressure accountability. They lose nothing in the region when federating into a national entity for national activities. As each component organisation is broadly based in a diverse membership, no particular interest group can dominate. Since CORBO requires that member organisations be democratically representative, profit or sector based companies are unable to unduly influence it in policy or action. Any single bushfood industry stakeholder has a regional body to relate to rather than only a centralised national body such as ANBIC. As a result, CORBO now has five times as many stakeholder members as ANBIC and is well on its way to forming an effective vehicle for national representation and networking between regions. Needless to say, this route is slower because it implies democratic and transparent processes. Of course there are still hurdles and problems. The current state of play in bushfoods is cluttered with egos and empires, each seeking to promote their own particular agenda. Plantation producers are very small in actual numbers at present and are under-represented despite their future as majority producers. RIRDC is calling for R&D tenders without an industry approved R&D plan. As of August 1997, RIRDC had not yet accepted CORBO as the bushfood peak national body, partially due to the fact that CORBO has yet to officially incorporate or even physically met with all potential member organisations. The time is opportune to make your input through your regional organisation and elsewhere. Despite these concerns, the bush-food industry has decided that a strong, well grounded and carefully maintained tree is the only hope for healthy and abundant fruit in the future. Larry Geno, P.O. Box 49, Lismore NSW 2480

News

Committee of Regional Bushfood Organisations (C.O.R.B.O.)

The Committee of Regional Bush-food Organisations (C.O.R.B.O.) has been formed by regional bush-food organisations to represent the developing bushfood industry on a national level. The main purpose of C.O.R.B.O. is to ensure that the executives of regional organisations are kept in touch with each other to:

* support the coalition of regional bushfood groups and speak on their behalf when needed

* act as a lobbying group for the interests of all the members of these organisations

* maintain co-ordination between the regional organisations to ensure that there is mutual support and co-operation for activities of the organisations and

* allow for a more streamlined process of communication.

Due to the efforts of bushfood pioneers, the industry is now recognised as having growth potential. Australian cuisine is featured in restaurants and supermarkets. Several bushfood species are being grown in commercial plantations. Each Australian climatic zone has bush-food species being developed, such as: desert lime, bush tomato and quandong in the arid zone; lemon myrtle, davidsons plum and riberry in the subtropics; and mountain pepper bush, muntries, appleberry and vanilla lilly in temperate climates. Bushfood organisations and co-operatives are currently providing information to growers and the industry, facilitating an open forum for development. C.O.R.B.O. is inviting other democratic bush-food organisations to join. Individuals with enquiries should contact C.O.R.B.O. and they will be put in contact with the appropriate regional organisation. Contact: C.O.R,B O. Co-ordinator Linda Hamley Ph: 03-9695 4472 (BH) 03-9529 7346 (AH) 014 489 036 (Mob) or c/o 25 Duke Street, Windsor, Vic. 3181

Festival of Australian Plants Packs them In

Fairhilll Nursery, Yandina (South East Qld) held their annual Festival of Australian Plants over the weekend of 2nd and 3rd of August. This Festival has grown yearly and the '97 event was by far the most well attended to date, with hundreds of people visiting the nursery over the two days. The festival program included a session on essential oil (Lemon Scented Myrtle) and a good range of bushfood products.

Bushfoods in Hong Kong

This article first appeared in the ANBIC Ltd Journal, June 1997. Australian native bushfoods were represented at HOFEX 1997, a well established and organised trade event held every second year, alternating between Hong Kong and Singapore. This year it was held at the spectacular Hong Kong convention centre from 6th-9th May. HOFEX attracts industry participation from the entire South East Asian region. Robins Bush Food from Victoria were there and found that the products which gained most interest were those based on Wild Lime, including the vinegars, Wild Lime Pickle, Illawarra Plum and chilli sauce, mango and native mint salsa and the Wild Rosellajam. The greatest interest came from China, Malaysia and the Philippines. The general feeling is that potential markets in this region will be primarily in the food service sector as the retail sector is not quite ready for bushfoods yet. There are many expatriate chefs in this region and many of them are aware of the products now available. Ian Robins, who represented Robins Bush Foods, makes the point that much effort is required in export markets to attain success and on-going sales.

Tasting Australia

Adelaide October 5-12th 1997

Adelaide will host a gastronomic event of international proportions this October with the week long Tasting Australia' festival. Bushfoods feature highly in the program, which has attracted food and wine writers, chefs and restaurateurs from around the world. Further information: Ph: 09 388 8877 Fax: 09 388 8866

Australian Tropical Plants Vol. 1,Version 2

Colleen Keena

'Australian Tropical Plants Vol 1' is a CD-ROM packed with information. The cover states "Vast amounts of data and 1250 pictures of 524 species of Australian tropical plants". An understatment. Plant information is available in a wide variety of formats and there are many search criteria, including Flowering Time, Fruiting Time, Form, Flower colour, Perfumed Flowers; Shade Tree; Screen Plant; Windbreak; Bush tucker; etc. Under Utilities you can view distribution maps or print an image and register for the Australian or International Version. I accessed the Multiquery feature in order to plan a bushfood garden for Brisbane. The output from Multi-query used Brisbane and Bush-tucker as the search parameters. The printed list had 47 plants. This was subsequently printed as a separate list of plants for sun and for shade. This listing has been useful in a number of ways. First, there were plants listed that had been overlooked in my pre-printout stage of planning, such as Alpinea caerulea and Melodorum leichhardtii (Rauwenhoffia) and these were added to the planting list.

Second, there were plants listed with which I was unfamiliar. These could be looked up in the With Preview section. When a plant is looked up there is a distribution map and 1. 2. or 3 high quality photographs with zoom features. It is even possible to compare pictures of different species at the same time. Reports can be printed out for each species. Reports include survival rating, form, height, flower colour, distribution, notes on the species, flowering times, fruiting time, uses and special features such as attractive foliage and the regions in which the plant can be grown. Reports were obtained both for species with which I was familiar, such as Davidson's plum, Davidsonia pruriens, and plants with which I was unfamiliar, e.g. Lady Apple, Syzygium suborbiculare. Useful information was included in the notes, e.g. helpful information on making jam with Davidson's plum and hints on how to deal with the fine hairs which get into your hands. The Notes section for Lady Apple suggested ways to get the plant growing rapidly. I learned from the notes on Antidesma bunius and Flacourtia sp. that there are male and female plants so three plants will usually be required to obtain fruit. Thirdly, my planned bush food garden had shady sections, sunny sections, sections that edged the garden (where attractive foliage was to be a feature) screen sections, areas where the soil dried out (in which plants with a high survival rating were needed). As well, plants within each bed were selected so that the flowers, fruit and foliage complemented adjacent plants. Finally, some plants were to be maintained as tub plants. Lists with these specific features were obtained from the database e.g. bush-tucker plants for Brisbane, suitable for tub plants and full sun. Lists and pictures of plants were instantly available and photos included flowers, fruit and leaves so plants could be sited appropriately. Through the extensive list of features available in the Multi-query, planning tropical bushfood planting can be far more intentional and effective through use of this CD. Whatever the features you're looking for (bush-tucker, plants for Brisbane, suitable for a screen.

shade tolerant, high survival rating...) an appropriate list can be generated and printed immediately. I have found the survival rating useful. For instance, Syzygium leuhmannii, which has survived a long drought without extra water, is rated 5 (after establishment the plant does not need any water apart from natural rain), whereas 5. erythrocalyx, which consistently dies on me, is only given a rating of 2.

This review has concentrated on an extremely limited sample of the information that can be gained from the program. Bush-tucker lists could also have included Flowering time, Fruiting time, Form (shrub, tree, herb, vine, prostrate), Flower colour, and other Special features such as showy flowers; attractive fruit; perfumed flowers; shade tree; windbreak and bird and butterfly attracting species. This program has been very useful in designing our bush food garden. I keep seeing more and more ways in which to use this program and am really looking forward to AUSTRALIAN TROPICAL PLANTS VOLUME 2.

Australian Tropical Plants Volume 1

is produced by Zodiac Publications (Ph: 070 954 469.) The cost is now $43, postage-free within Australia.

Volume 2, with 500 more species, is to be available in early 1998. Zodiac Publications have a web-site:

http/www/ tpgi.com.au.luserslzod pub/

beeBees Knees and Good Leaves

Native Bees "Take to the Air"

From: Aussie Bee, Issue 2 May 1997 ABC Radio 2BL was flooded with calls when Native Bees Took to the Air...

Science Correspondent Paul Willis presented a lively half hour talk-back segment on native bees on Angela Catterns' Evening Show on the 5th May. Paul discussed many interesting things he had seen at the Australian Native Bee Research Centre a few weeks earlier, when he interviewed Les and Anne Dollin for an ABC science show segment. Paul said, "I was stunned at how incredibly interesting our bees are!" Several listeners who rang in spoke of the pleasure they get from observing native bees in their garden. Jane had some stingless bees which had built a nest in a pipe in her yard. Jane told Angela Catterns that she had not tasted the honey because "They're native bees - we'd rather have the hive there for the environment rather than raid it."

Paul Willis commended her stand, agreeing that you can destroy a hive by trying to collect the honey. Olive from Brisbane and Jeff from Campbelltown both enjoy beautiful blue banded bees in their gardens. Jeff said, "I can sit there and watch them for hours". Since the program, letters have poured into the Australian Native Bee Research Centre from all over Australia, offering help with bee research and telling interesting stories about bees.

Aussie Bee

Australia's First Bulletin on Native Bees

• Intriguing Facts

• Rare Photographs

• Bee-Involved in the Research

For a FREE Sample Copy

write to:

Australian Native Bee Research Centre

PO Box 74-Gl North Richmond NSW 2754

Aussie Bee Subscription: $26.50 pa (4 Issues )

Detailed Information Booklets also available

My Favourite Bushfood

lemonmyrtleColleen Keena

For me, the must-have bush food is Backhousia citriodora. Lemon Scented Myrtle.

I have three fully grown trees so there are always fresh young leaves available. I pick one or two of these each day and put them in my glasses case. Then, whenever I am thirsty throughout the day, hot water is added to one of the leaves and the result is not only a delicious lemon-tasting drink, but a fragrant one as well. Some of my work-mates also enjoy lemon myrtle tea so 1 pick a piece with enough leaves for a week or so. These leaves keep so well that tea is still enjoyable one or even two weeks later. The drink is even better made in a tea-pot. Rinse the pot with hot water, throw this out, add a leaf and pour boiling water over the leaf.

The longer the leaf remains in the pot, the stronger the tea. I usually remove it when the water just begins to colour but friends leave it until the liquid is darker. Sometimes in the summer, I leave the drink to cool and add extra water to make a refreshing cold drink. Occasionally, I feel like having a hot drink at night. I find lemon myrtle a relaxing, refreshing drink that does not keep me awake. Although I mostly use Buckhousia citriodora to make drinks, the leaves can be used for cooking as well. Probably the simplest recipe is to add a chopped leaf to rice after the rice has been cooked. The leaf pieces are stirred through just before serving and removed when the desired flavour has been achieved. Lemon myrtle rice makes a great accompaniment to curry.

Recipes

Crocodile Stuffed Chicken Breast with Wild Lime and Whisky Marmalade glaze

Need:

2 x No 18 chicken breast

2 x 50 gm pieces of crocodile tail meat

50 gm wattle seed, ground and roasted

1 jar Walkabout Foods Wild Lime and Whisky Marmalade Salt and ground pepperleaf

100 ml macadamia oil (Macfarms) Method

First cut incision in chicken breast with a sharp knife. Coat the croc, meat in wattle seed and stuff the chicken breast with the croc meat. Season the chicken breasts with the salt and pepperleaf. In a heavy bare fry pan heat the macadamia oil and seal the chicken breasts on both sides. Then place in a preheated oven (220 C) for 15 minutes. In a small saucepan heat the Wildlimeand Whisky Marmalade until runny. When chicken breasts are ready slice in half and arrange on plates. Spoon marmalade glaze over and enjoy.

Outback Pizza

Topping

Emu peperoni

Sliced onions

Sliced capsicums

Kangaroo Island Camembert Desert Lime

Warrigal greens

Bush tomato sauce

Dough

100 gm lavcke Mt. Pepper concentrate

500 gm lavcke pizza flour

300 ml tepid water

100 ml Walkabout Foods Baskit Range olive oils

pinch salt and sugar

2 teaspoons dry yeast Method tor Dough

Place ingredients in a bowl, mix well. Knead for 5 to 7 minutes. Place dough in warm spot and let rest for 20 to 30 minutes Roll out pizza bases and place topping on top. Bake 10 minutes in hot over or until base is golden brown.

Recipes from Jim Talladira of Walkabout Foods Australia

Groups around the country

Is your group not listed here? Let us know - sammy - at - ausbushfoods.com

ARBIA: (Australian Rainforest Bushfoods Industry Association Inc.)

Secretary:Margaret A. Bailey

Ph: 066799 152

Fax: 066 799 179

PO Box 147

Uki NSW 2484

Membership: $60 pa full voting member

$40 pa non-voting associate member

Newsletter (4 per year).

Arid Land Growers Association

Graham Herde

Nectar Brooks Station via Port Augusta

SA 5700

Ph: 086347077

Native Foods SA Info to come

Quandong Industry Association

President: Daniel J. Matthews PO Box 236 Upper Sturt SA 5156

Queensland Bushtoods Growers Co-op Society

Secretary David Cooke

PO Box 358

Beerwah

QLD 4519

Ph: 0754946037

Rainforest Seed Collective

Co-ordinator: Yahana Treweeke

Private Mail Bag, Bellingen

NSW 2454

Ph: 066 552 233

Workshops, courses, newlsetter everything rainforest. $20 for 4 issues ($10 low income).

Seed Savers Network

Contact: Dierdre

PO Box 975, Byron Bay

NSW 2481

Ph/fax: 066 856 624

Newsletter, seed exchange

Society for Growing Australian Plants Queensland:

PO Box 586 Fortitude Valley

Old 4006

Ordinary m'ship: $30 pa

Student: $22 pa

Society for Growing Australian Plants NSW

W. Payne: 860 Henry Lawson Dr

Picnic Point

NSW 2213

Publishes 'Australian Plants'

Ph: 0227739866

Southern Bushfood Network

Gil Freeman:

21 Smith St

Thornbury

Vic 3071

Ph: 0394167150

Newsletter sub: $30 pa

Southern Vales Bushfood

Michael Brandwood:

PO Box 344

Clarendon

SA 5157

Ph: 08 8383 6481

Bio-Dynamic Agriculture Association

Main Road POWELLTOWN

VICTORIA 3797

Ph: (059) 667 370

Fax: (059) 667 339

Bio-Dynamic Farming & Gardening Assoc. in Aust Inc

PO Box 54 BELLINGEN NSW 2454 Phone: (066) 55-0404 Fax: (066) 55-0399

Biological Farmers of Australia

GPO Box 2577 CANBERRA CITY

ACT 2601

Phone:(076)393299

Fax: (076) 393 755

Coffs Regional Organic Producers Ass.

PO Box 363, Coffs Harbour NSW 2450

National Association for Sustainable Agriculture, Australia Ltd

PO Box 768 STIRLING SA 5152

Phone: (08) 370 8455

Fax: (08) 370 838

Organic Herb Growers of Australia Inc

P.O. Box 6171 SOUTH LISMORE NSW 2480. Phone: (066) 291 057

Tree Crops Centre

PO Box 27, Subiaco, WA 6008 Phone: (08) 9388 1965 Fax: (08) 9388 1852

Committee of Regional Bushfood Organisations

(C.O.R.B.O.)

The Committee of Regional Bush-food Organisations (C.O.R.B.O.)

has been formed by regional bush-food organisations to represent the developing bushfood industry on a national level. The main purpose of C.O.R.B.O. is to ensure that the executives of regional organisations are kept in touch with each other to:

* support the coalition of regional bushfood groups and speak on their behalf when needed

* act as a lobbying group for the interests of all the members of these organisations

* maintain co-ordination between the regional organisations to ensure that there is mutual support and co-operation for activities of the organisations and

* allow for a more streamlined process of communication.

Due to the efforts of bushfood pioneers, the industry is now recognised as having growth potential. Australian cuisine is featured in restaurants and supermarkets.

Several bushfood species are being grown in commercial plantations. Each Australian climatic zone has bush-food species being developed, such as: desert lime, bush tomato and quandong in the arid zone; lemon myrtle, davidsons plum and riberry in the subtropics; and mountain pepper bush, muntries, appleberry and vanilla lilly in temperate climates. Bushfood organisations and co-operatives are currently providing information to growers and the industry, facilitating an open forum for development. C.O.R.B.O. is inviting other democratic bush-food organisations to join. Individuals with enquiries should contact C.O.R.B.O. and they will be put in contact with the appropriate regional organisation. Contact: C.O.R,B O. Co-ordinator Linda Hamley Ph: 03-9695 4472 (BH) 03-9529 7346 (AH) 014 489 036 (Mob) or c/o 25 Duke Street, Windsor, Vic. 3181

Festival of Australian Plants Packs them In

Fairhilll Nursery, Yandina (South East Qld) held their annual Festival of Australian Plants over the weekend of 2nd and 3rd of August. This Festival has grown yearly and the '97 event was by far the most well attended to date, with hundreds of people visiting the nursery over the two days. The festival program included a session on essential oil (Lemon Scented Myrtle) and a good range of bushfood products.

Bushfoods in Hong Kong

This article first appeared in the ANBIC Ltd Journal, June 1997. Australian native bushfoods were represented at HOFEX 1997, a well established and organised trade event held every second year, alternating between Hong Kong and Singapore. This year it was held at the spectacular Hong Kong convention centre from 6th-9th May. HOFEX attracts industry participation from the entire South East Asian region. Robins Bush Food from Victoria were there and found that the products which gained most interest were those based on Wild Lime, including the vinegars, Wild Lime Pickle, Illawarra Plum and chilli sauce, mango and native mint salsa and the Wild Rosellajam. The greatest interest came from China, Malaysia and the Philippines. The general feeling is that potential markets in this region will be primarily in the food service sector as the retail sector is not quite ready for bushfoods yet. There are many expatriate chefs in this region and many of them are aware of the products now available. Ian Robins, who represented Robins Bush Foods, makes the point that much effort is required in export markets to attain success and on-going sales.

Tasting Australia

Adelaide October 5-12th 1997

Adelaide will host a gastronomic event of international proportions this October with the week long Tasting Australia' festival. Bushfoods feature highly in the program, which has attracted food and wine writers, chefs and restaurateurs from around the world. Further information: Ph: 09 388 8877 Fax: 09 388 8866

AUSTRALIAN TROPICAL PLANTS VOLUME 1,Version 2

Colleen Keena

'Australian Tropical Plants Vol 1' is a CD-ROM packed with information. The cover states "Vast amounts of data and 1250 pictures of'524 species of Australian tropical plants". An understatment. Plant information is available in a wide variety of formats and there are many search criteria, including Flowering Time, Fruiting Time, Form, Flower colour, Perfumed Flowers; Shade Tree; Screen Plant; Windbreak; Bush tucker; etc. Under Utilities you can view distribution maps or print an image and register for the Australian or International Version. I accessed the Multiquery feature in order to plan a bushfood garden for Brisbane. The output from Multi-query used Brisbane and Bush-tucker as the search parameters. The printed list had 47 plants. This was subsequently printed as a separate list of plants for sun and for shade. This listing has been useful in a number of ways. First, there were plants listed that had been overlooked in my pre-printout stage of planning, such as Alpinea caerulea and Melodorum leichhardtii (Rauwenhoffia) and these were added to the planting list.

Second, there were plants listed with which I was unfamiliar. These could be looked up in the With Preview section. When a plant is looked up there is a distribution map and 1. 2. or 3 high quality photographs with zoom features. It is even possible to compare pictures of different species at the same time. Reports can be printed out for each species. Reports include survival rating, form, height, flower colour, distribution, notes on the species, flowering times, fruiting time, uses and special features such as attractive foliage and the regions in which the plant can be grown. Reports were obtained both for species with which I was familiar, such as Davidson's plum, Davidsonia pruriens, and plants with which I was unfamiliar, e.g. Lady Apple, Syzygium suborbiculare. Useful information was included in the notes, e.g. helpful information on making jam with Davidson's plum and hints on how to deal with the fine hairs which get into your hands. The Notes section for Lady Apple suggested ways to get the plant growing rapidly. I learned from the notes on Antidesma bunius and Flacourtia sp. that there are male and female plants so three plants will usually be required to obtain fruit. Thirdly, my planned bush food garden had shady sections, sunny sections, sections that edged the garden (where attractive foliage was to be a feature) screen sections, areas where the soil dried out (in which plants with a high survival rating were needed). As well, plants within each bed were selected so that the flowers, fruit and foliage complemented adjacent plants. Finally, some plants were to be maintained as tub plants. Lists with these specific features were obtained from the database e.g. bush-tucker plants for Brisbane, suitable for tub plants and full sun. Lists and pictures of plants were instantly available and photos included flowers, fruit and leaves so plants could be sited appropriately. Through the extensive list of features available in the Multi-query, planning tropical bushfood planting can be far more intentional and effective through use of this CD. Whatever the features you're looking for (bush-tucker, plants for Brisbane, suitable for a screen.

shade tolerant, high survival rating...) an appropriate list can be generated and printed immediately. I have found the survival rating useful. For instance, Syzygium leuhmannii, which has survived a long drought without extra water, is rated 5 (after establishment the plant does not need any water apart from natural rain), whereas 5. erythrocalyx, which consistently dies on me, is only given a rating of 2.

This review has concentrated on an extremely limited sample of the information that can be gained from the program. Bush-tucker lists could also have included Flowering time, Fruiting time, Form (shrub, tree, herb, vine, prostrate), Flower colour, and other Special features such as showy flowers; attractive fruit; perfumed flowers; shade tree; windbreak and bird and butterfly attracting species. This program has been very useful in designing our bush food garden. I keep seeing more and more ways in which to use this program and am really looking forward to.

AUSTRALIAN TROPICAL PLANTS VOLUME 2.

Australian Tropical Plants Volume 1

is produced by Zodiac Publications (Ph: 070 954 469.) The cost is now $43, postage-free within Australia. Volume 2, with 500 more species, is to be available in early 1998. Zodiac Publications have a web-site:

http/www/ tpgi.com.au.luserslzod pub/

Bees Knees and Good Leaves

Native Bees "Take to the Air"

From: Aussie Bee, Issue 2 May 1997 ABC Radio 2BL was flooded with calls when Native Bees Took to the Air...

Science Correspondent Paul Willis presented a lively half hour talk-back segment on native bees on Angela Catterns' Evening Show on the 5th May. Paul discussed many interesting things he had seen at the Australian Native Bee Research Centre a few weeks earlier, when he interviewed Les and Anne Dollin for an ABC science show segment. Paul said, "I was stunned at how incredibly interesting our bees are!" Several listeners who rang in spoke of the pleasure they get from observing native bees in their garden. Jane had some stingless bees which had built a nest in a pipe in her yard. Jane told Angela Catterns that she had not tasted the honey because "They're native bees - we'd rather have the hive there for the environment rather than raid it."

Paul Willis commended her stand, agreeing that you can destroy a hive by trying to collect the honey. Olive from Brisbane and Jeff from Campbelltown both enjoy beautiful blue banded bees in their gardens. Jeff said, "I can sit there and watch them for hours". Since the program, letters have poured into the Australian Native Bee Research Centre from all over Australia, offering help with bee research and telling interesting stories about bees.

Aussie Bee

Australia's First Bulletin on Native Bees

• Intriguing Facts
• Rare Photographs
• Bee-Involved in the Research
For a FREE Sample Copy write to:
Australian Native Bee Research Centre
PO Box 74-Gl North Richmond NSW 2754
Aussie Bee Subscription: $26.50 pa (4 Issues)
Detailed Information Booklets also available

My Favourite Bushfood Colleen Keena

For me, the must-have bush food is Backhousia citriodora. Lemon Scented Myrtle.

I have three fully grown trees so there are always fresh young leaves available. I pick one or two of these each day and put them in my glasses case. Then, whenever I am thirsty throughout the day, hot water is added to one of the leaves and the result is not only a delicious lemon-tasting drink, but a fragrant one as well. Some of my work-mates also enjoy lemon myrtle tea so 1 pick a piece with enough leaves for a week or so. These leaves keep so well that tea is still enjoyable one or even two weeks later. The drink is even better made in a tea-pot. Rinse the pot with hot water, throw this out, add a leaf and pour boiling water over the leaf.

The longer the leaf remains in the pot, the stronger the tea. I usually remove it when the water just begins to colour but friends leave it until the liquid is darker. Sometimes in the summer, I leave the drink to cool and add extra water to make a refreshing cold drink. Occasionally, I feel like having a hot drink at night. I find lemon myrtle a relaxing, refreshing drink that does not keep me awake. Although I mostly use Buckhousia citriodora to make drinks, the leaves can be used for cooking as well. Probably the simplest recipe is to add a chopped leaf to rice after the rice has been cooked. The leaf pieces are stirred through just before serving and removed when the desired flavour has been achieved. Lemon myrtle rice makes a great accompaniment to curry.

Recipes

Crocodile Stuffed Chicken Breast with Wild Lime and Whisky Marmalade glaze

Need:

2 x No 18 chicken breast
2 x 50 gm pieces of crocodile tail meat
50 gm wattle seed, ground and roasted
1 jar Walkabout Foods Wild Lime and Whisky Marmalade Salt and ground pepperleaf
100 ml macadamia oil (Macfarms) Method

First cut incision in chicken breast with a sharp knife. Coat the croc, meat in wattle seed and stuff the chicken breast with the croc meat. Season the chicken breasts with the salt and pepperleaf. In a heavy bare fry pan heat the macadamia oil and seal the chicken breasts on both sides. Then place in a preheated oven (220 C) for 15 minutes. In a small saucepan heat the Wildlimeand Whisky Marmalade until runny. When chicken breasts are ready slice in half and arrange on plates. Spoon marmalade glaze over and enjoy.

Outback Pizza

Topping

Emu peperoni
Sliced onions
Sliced capsicums
Kangaroo Island Camembert Desert Lime
Warrigal greens
Bush tomato sauce
Dough
100 gm lavcke Mt. Pepper concentrate
500 gm lavcke pizza flour
300 ml tepid water
100 ml Walkabout Foods Baskit Range olive oils
pinch salt and sugar
2 teaspoons dry yeast Method tor Dough

Place ingredients in a bowl, mix well. Knead for 5 to 7 minutes. Place dough in warm spot and let rest for 20 to 30 minutes Roll out pizza bases and place topping on top. Bake 10 minutes in hot over or until base is golden brown.

Recipes from Jim Talladira of Walkabout Foods Australia

Groups around the country

Is your group not listed here? Let us know - sammy - at - ausbushfoods.com
ARBIA: (Australian Rainforest Bushfoods Industry Association Inc.)Secretary:Margaret A. Bailey
Ph: 066799 152
Fax: 066 799 179
PO Box 147
Uki NSW 2484
Membership: $60 pa full voting member
$40 pa non-voting associate member
Newsletter (4 per year).

Arid Land Growers Association

Graham Herde
Nectar Brooks Station via
Port Auousta
SA 5700
Ph: 086347077

Native Foods SA Info to come

Quandong Industry Association

President: Daniel J. Matthews PO Box 236 Upper Sturt SA 5156

Queensland Bushtoods Growers Co-op Society

Secretary David Cooke
PO Box 358
Beerwah
QLD 4519
Ph: 0754946037

Rainforest Seed Collective

Co-ordinator: Yahana Treweeke
Private Mail Bag, Bellingen
NSW 2454
Ph: 066 552 233
Workshops, courses, newlsetter everything rainforest. $20 for 4
issues ($10 low income).

Seed Savers Network

Contact: Dierdre
PO Box 975, Byron Bay
NSW 2481
Ph/fax: 066 856 624
Newsletter, seed exchange

Society for Growing Australian Plants Queensland:

PO Box 586
Fortitude Valley
Old 4006
Ordinary m'ship: $30 pa
Student: $22 pa

Society for Growing Australian Plants NSW

W. Payne: 860 Henry Lawson Dr
Picnic Point
NSW 2213
Publishes 'Australian Plants'
Ph: 0227739866

Southern Bushfood Network

Gil Freeman:
21 Smith St
Thornbury
Vic 3071
Ph: 0394167150

Newsletter sub: $30 pa

 

Southern Vales Bushfood

Michael Brandwood:

PO Box 344

Clarendon

SA 5157

Ph: 08 8383 6481

 

Bio-Dynamic Agriculture Association

Main Road POWELLTOWN

VICTORIA 3797

Ph: (059) 667 370

Fax: (059) 667 339

 

Bio-Dynamic Farming & Gardening Assoc. in Aust Inc

PO Box 54 BELLINGEN NSW 2454 Phone: (066) 55-0404 Fax: (066) 55-0399

 

Biological Farmers of Australia

GPO Box 2577 CANBERRA CITY

ACT 2601

Phone:(076)393299

Fax: (076) 393 755

Coffs Regional Organic Producers Ass.

PO Box 363, Coffs Harbour NSW 2450

National Association for Sustainable Agriculture, Australia Ltd

PO Box 768 STIRLING SA 5152

Phone: (08) 370 8455

Fax: (08) 370 838

Organic Herb Growers of Australia Inc

P.O. Box 6171 SOUTH LISMORE NSW 2480. Phone: (066) 291 057

Tree Crops Centre

PO Box 27, Subiaco, WA 6008 Phone: (08) 9388 1965 Fax: (08) 9388 1852

 

Reading...

Books, nurseries, government departments, retail outlets, marketing

firms, distributors, exporters...and more!

A Taste of Australia, Ross, Joy, Five Mile Press

Australia's Wild Food, Low, Tim, Collins/A&R,

Australian Dry Zone Acacias for Human Food, House, A.P.N. & Hardwood, C.E.,CSIRO

Australian Medicinal Plants, Lassack, E. & McCarthy, T, Methven,1983

Australian Native Plants for Tropical and Sub Tropical E Coast Gardens, Complied by Fairhill Nursery, Fairhill

Bush Medicines, The Pharmacopoeia, Scarlet, White & Reid, UQP,1982

Essential Oils of'Austeromyrtus, Callistemon & Melaleuca Species, Brophy, J.J. and Doran, J.C., Aust Centre for International Agric. Research

Some Citrus Species and Varieties in Australia, Alexander, D. McE, CSIRO

The Food Resources of the Aborigines of SW Australia, Meagher, S., WA Museum, 1974

The Feast of the Bunya, Moynihan, Fortitude Press, 1985

Victorian Koori Plants, Gott, B.,Yangennanock Womens Group

Net Sites...

Bush Tucker Supplies: www.bushtuck.com.au

Greening Australia: www.greenwork.org.au/bushfood.html

Australian New Crops Project: www.uq.edu.au/~gagkrego

ABC Landline: www.abc.net.au/landline

Australian Plants Online: www.ozemail.com.au/~sgap

Australian National Botanic Gardens (Aboriginal Trail): http://155.187.10.12/anbg/aboriginal-trail.html

Oz Bush Garden: www.highway 1 .com.au/ozgarden

Seed Suppliers

Australian Bush Products,

PO Box 131, STRATH ALB YN, S A, 5255

Seed of South Australia and, in particular, that of the Murray Mallee, Lakes and Plains districts. The company supplies seed in quantities suitable for the home gardener, nurseries, farmers and schools. Phone or Fax: (085) 344 124.

Australian Seed Company

PO Box 67, HAZELBROOK. NSW, 2779

Over a thousand Australian native species, particularly from temperate and cooler regions and arid /.ones. Phone (047)586132; Fax (047) 587 022.

Bushland Flora

17 Trotman Crescent, Yanchep Lagoon, YANCHEP, WA, 6035 Bushland Flora currently lists 750 species in its catalogue. Phone (09) 561 1636.

Ellison Horticultural Pty Ltd

PO Box 365, NOWRA, NSW, 2541 The company specialises in provenance collections of a large range of Australian native seeds with over 2000 listed in its catalogue. Phone (044) 214 255; Fax (044) 230 859.

Goozeff Seeds

PO Box 3022, NORTH NOWRA,

NSW, 2541

Wholesale seed company supplying a wide range of Australian native and exotic tree, shrub, grass and palm seeds. Phone or Fax (044) 210 731.

R and K Horner

1 Grundy Street, ALICE SPRINGS,

NT, 0870

This company specialises in seeds of plants from central Australia. Phone or Fax (08) 8952 8583.

Nindethana Seed Service

PO Box 2121, ALBANY, WA, 6330.

One of the largest suppliers of Australian native plant seeds with over 3000 species available. Phone (098) 443 533; Fax (098) 443 573.

Recipe From Lenah Game Meats of Tasmania

Lenah Wallaby Strip Loins with bush pesto, grilled eggplant, goats cheese and tomato coulis

(4 people)

* 8 entree Lenah Wallaby Strip Loins

* 1 large eggplant

* 1 tsp. basil pesto 1 large onion (diced)

* 2 small goats cheese (5 cm in diameter)

* 5 large tomatoes

* 1 clove garlic (chopped)

* 1 tsp. brown sugar seasoning

Method

Season onion and garlic in a little olive oil.

Add chopped tomatoes, soften gently.

Add sugar and further soften.

Puree and season to taste with salt and cracked pepper. Keep warm. Smear eggplant with olive oil and

chargrill or saute in hot pan.

Cut goats cheese in half and warm through in low oven.

Quickly seal wallaby in a hot pan to medium rare.

Arrange tomato coulis on plate, top with grilled eggplant and warmed goats cheese.

Rub wallaby with basil pesto and arrange on top of goats cheese.

Resources

Reading...

Books, nurseries, government departments, retail outlets, marketing firms, distributors, exporters...and more!

A Taste of Australia, Ross, Joy, Five Mile Press

Australia's Wild Food, Low, Tim, Collins/A&R,

Australian Dry Zone Acacias for Human Food, House, A.P.N. & Hardwood, C.E.,CSIRO

Australian Medicinal Plants, Lassack, E. & McCarthy, T, Methven,1983

Australian Native Plants for Tropical and Sub Tropical E Coast Gardens, Complied by Fairhill Nursery, Fairhill Bush Medicines, The Pharmacopoeia, Scarlet, White & Reid, UQP,1982 Essential Oils of Austeromyrtus, Callistemon & Melaleuca Species, Brophy, J.J. and Doran, J.C., Aust Centre for International Agric. Research

Some Citrus Species and Varieties in Australia, Alexander, D. McE, CSIRO

The Food Resources of the Aborigines of SW Australia, Meagher, S., WA Museum, 1974

The Feast of the Bunya, Moynihan, Fortitude Press, 1985

Victorian Koori Plants, Gott, B.,Yangennanock Womens Group

Net Sites...

Bush Tucker Supplies: www.bushtuck.com.au

Greening Australia: www.greenwork.org.au/bushfood.html

Australian New Crops Project: www.uq.edu.au/~gagkrego

ABC Landline: www.abc.net.au/landline

Australian Plants Online: www.ozemail.com.au/~sgap

Australian National Botanic Gardens (Aboriginal Trail): http://155.187.10.12/anbg/aboriginal-trail.html

Oz Bush Garden: www.highway 1 .com.au/ozgarden

Seed Suppliers

Australian Bush Products,

PO Box 131, STRATH ALB YN, S A, 5255

Seed of South Australia and, in particular, that of the Murray Mallee, Lakes and Plains districts. The company supplies seed in quantities suitable for the home gardener, nurseries, farmers and schools. Phone or Fax: (085) 344 124.

Australian Seed Company

PO Box 67, HAZELBROOK. NSW, 2779

Over a thousand Australian native species, particularly from temperate and cooler regions and arid /.ones. Phone (047)586132; Fax (047) 587 022.

Bushland Flora

17 Trotman Crescent, Yanchep Lagoon, YANCHEP, WA, 6035 Bushland Flora currently lists 750 species in its catalogue. Phone (09) 561 1636.

Ellison Horticultural Pty Ltd

PO Box 365, NOWRA, NSW, 2541 The company specialises in provenance collections of a large range of Australian native seeds with over 2000 listed in its catalogue. Phone (044) 214 255; Fax (044) 230 859.

Goozeff Seeds

PO Box 3022, NORTH NOWRA,

NSW, 2541

Wholesale seed company supplying

a wide range of Australian native and exotic tree, shrub, grass and palm seeds. Phone or Fax (044) 210 731.

R and K Horner

1 Grundy Street, ALICE SPRINGS,

NT, 0870

This company specialises in seeds of plants from central Australia. Phone or Fax (08) 8952 8583.

Nindethana Seed Service

PO Box 2121, ALBANY, WA, 6330.

One of the largest suppliers of Australian native plant seeds with over 3000 species available. Phone (098) 443 533; Fax (098) 443 573.

Recipe From Lenah Game Meats of Tasmania

Lenah Wallaby Strip Loins with bush pesto, grilled eggplant, goats cheese and tomato coulis

(4 people)

* 8 entree Lenah Wallaby Strip Loins

* 1 large eggplant

* 1 tsp. basil pesto 1 large onion (diced)

* 2 small goats cheese (5 cm in diameter)

* 5 large tomatoes

* 1 clove garlic (chopped)

* 1 tsp. brown sugar seasoning

Method

Season onion and garlic in a little olive oil.

Add chopped tomatoes, soften gently.

Add sugar and further soften.

Puree and season to taste with salt and cracked pepper. Keep warm. Smear eggplant with olive oil and

chargrill or saute in hot pan.

Cut goats cheese in half and warm through in low oven.

Quickly seal wallaby in a hot pan to medium rare.

Arrange tomato coulis on plate, top with grilled eggplant and warmed goats cheese.

Rub wallaby with basil pesto and arrange on top of goats cheese.

Index - Issue 3
From the Editor
Two Surveys Mixed results
R & D From RIRDC Draft Plan
The Finger Lime Erika Birmingam
Eat Your Garden Permaculture and bushfoods
From the Bookshop
Australian Native Limes Steven Sykes of CSIRO
The Desert Lime Wendy and David Phelps
Harvest and Post Harvest
Flamin' Bull Bushfoods Restaurant
Wallaby The Veal of Kangaroo
Profile: Erika Birmingham Second in our Series
Eating out at Home A dinner party
DPI Notes Desert lime
Thoughts on the Bunya John King
Bushfoods and Bioregionalism Larry Geno
News
CD Review - Australian Tropical Plants
Native Bees and Good Leaves
My Favourite Bushfoods - Colleen Keena
Recipes
Groups
Resources
Recipes

Get up-to-date info at Bushfoods magazine online

 

TOP